This same paradigm can be seen in the construction of the pyramids at Giza during the Old Kingdom of Egypt c.
Although the Great Pyramid and the others still stand, none of the treasures buried with the kings of the 4th Dynasty — Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure — have been found in the structures and neither were any of the bodies. Execration texts curses on the doors and lintels of tombs were supposed to prevent such thefts, and the Egyptian belief in a life after death — from which the dead could interact with the living — should have encouraged greater respect and fear of a haunting in would-be thieves but, evidently, neither were strong enough incentives to curb the temptation of easy riches with little risk.
Egyptologist David P. Silverman writes:. It was no secret that, as the burial process grew more elaborate, so did the value of the grave goods interred with both royal and non-royal mummies. Gilded coffins, amulets of precious stones, exotic imported artifacts all proved too tempting for thieves.
By the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt c. This new burial place is known today as the Valley of the Kings and the nearby Valley of the Queens and the village is Deir el-Medina.
Exactly how this would have happened is unknown but somehow the workers on that tomb buried the earlier one without a trace and so preserved it until the 20th century CE when Carter found it. Most tombs, however, were not so lucky and almost all were looted to one degree or another. Egypt was a cashless society until the coming of the Persians in BCE, and so the wealth looted from the tombs would not have been exchanged for money nor could it have been used in trade.
One could not simply walk into the marketplace with a golden scepter, for example, and trade it for some sacks of grain because stolen goods were supposed to be reported immediately to the authorities. If someone were to accept a stolen item in trade then that person would be burdened with the task of somehow disposing of it and hope to make a profit. Most likely, the stolen items were fenced to a higher corrupt official, who would have paid for it in material goods and then had the gold melted down to some other form and traded it for goods or services to an artisan.
The difficulty in controlling tomb robberies was simply that the wealth entombed with the deceased was so vast and the officials tasked with keeping them safe could so easily be bought. Even if a tomb were designed to disorient a thief and the burial chamber were located deep within the earth and blocked by rubble, there was always some way around these obstacles for the resourceful thief.
The location of the tombs was also quite well advertised as they either had enormous pyramids rising above them or more modest, but still elaborate, mastabas. If one were looking for quick gain then one need look no further than looting a tomb in the middle of the night. It was largely for this reason that Amenhotep I commissioned the village known today as Deir el-Medina.
But they also spent time and treasure creating hidden underground At least one late Ramesside pharaoh's tomb (Ramses VIII) is still. Pharaoh's Tomb is a DOS platform game created by George Broussard and published by Pharaoh's Tomb. From Wikipedia . Views. Read · Edit · View history.
The workers of the village would create the tombs and protect their creation and, since they relied on the state for their wages and homes, they would be loyal and discreet regarding the location of the tombs and the amount of treasure to be found within. Although this paradigm may have worked in the early days of the community, it did not endure. Deir el-Medina was not a self-sufficient village — it had neither agricultural development nor a water supply — and relied on monthly deliveries of supplies in payment from Thebes and daily import of water from the Nile.
These supplies were largely standardized, not luxurious, and did not always arrive on time. The citizens of the village made their own crafts and bartered with each other, but the temptation to take treasure from a tomb, walk the hour or so to Thebes, and exchange it for some luxury proved too great for some of the workers.
Those who were supposed to protect the tombs used the same tools they had built them with to break in and rob them. These were not luxuries or bonuses but the wages of the workers — paid in food, supplies, and beer — which they needed to live. The failure of the supply system led to the first labor strike in history when the workers put down their tools, walked off the job, and marched on Thebes to demand their pay. Although the strike was effective and the villagers received their wages, the underlying problem of making sure supplies reached the village was never addressed.
Payments to Deir el-Medina would be late again and again throughout the rest of the period of the New Kingdom of Egypt as the central government steadily lost power and the bureaucracy which maintained it fell apart. In this climate, many more people turned to tomb robbing as a living.
In spite of the accepted belief in an afterlife and the power of execration texts which guaranteed a bad end for anyone who robbed a tomb, the activity went on with greater frequency than before. Criminals convicted in the late Ramesside Period c. Other texts record carousing on royal burial equipment and blasphemous activity by individuals. Such behavior suggests that at least part of the population had little fear of repercussions in this world or from the gods in the next.
Confessions from criminals convicted of tomb robbing multiply toward the end of the New Kingdom. The courts seem to have dealt with these cases on an almost daily basis. The Mayer Papyri c. Testimonies are recorded by police officers and chiefs regarding the suspects and how they were caught. Punishments are most often recorded as beatings with a rod bastinade on the soles of the feet and flogging but could be as severe as amputation of the hands and nose or even death by impalement or burning.
These punishments were still no deterrent. His confession is dated c. We went to rob the tombs as is our usual habit and we found the pyramid tomb of King Sobekemsaf, this tomb being unlike the pyramids and tombs of the nobles which we usually rob. We took our copper tools and forced a way into the pyramid of this king through its innermost part. We located the underground chambers and, taking lighted candles in our hands, went down. We found the god lying at the back of his burial place.
And we found the burial place of Queen Nubkhaas, his consort, beside him, it being protected and guarded by plaster and covered with rubble. We opened their sarcophagi and their coffins, and found the noble mummy of the king equipped with a sword. There were a large number of amulets and jewels of gold on his neck and he wore a headpiece of gold.
The noble mummy of the king was completely covered in gold and his coffins were decorated with gold and with silver inside and out and inlaid with precious stones. We collected the gold that we found on the mummy of the god including the amulets and jewels which were on his neck.
We set fire to their coffins. After some days, the district officers of Thebes heard that we had been robbing in the west and they arrested me and imprisoned me in the office of the mayor of Thebes.
I took the twenty deben of gold that represented my share and I gave them to Khaemope, the district scribe of the landing quay of Thebes. He released me and I rejoined my colleagues and they compensated me with a share again. And so I got into the habit of robbing the tombs. Lewis, The game started out as an level commercial game called Pharaoh's Pursuit published by Lone Star Micro , before it was remade into a four-episode game, with the first episode being released as shareware.
Each episode contains 20 levels, and each level consisting of a single room. The episodes are:. The game was discontinued on March 2, , and was released as freeware on March 20, A sequel, Arctic Adventure , based on the same engine, features Nevada Smith as the protagonist and has similar gameplay. The magazine said that the low price of the full game made it an "outstanding value". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Pharaoh's Tomb. Apogee Software. All moving objects are defined by a rectangular region around them. Retrieved 26 March March Computer Gaming World. Retrieved 17 November Build engine.