This database provides access to art and architectural history scholarship by making key backlist and out-of-print titles on a wide variety of subjects more broadly available and more widely discoverable. The platform also permits professors to create course packs for students. The African American Historical Serials Collection features periodicals spanning from through The periodicals in this collection include newspapers and magazines, in addition to reports and annuals from various African American organizations, including churches and educational and service institutions.
This collection was developed in conjunction with the American Theological Library Association ATLA as part of an effort to preserve endangered serials related to African American religious life and culture. Digitized official diplomatic dispatches, letters, and other correspondence from British archival sources about relations between Great Britain and the newly formed United States.
Civil War Primary Source Documents from The New-York Historical Society presents unique manuscript material chronicling all aspects of the American Civil War from warfare on land, at sea, in hospitals and prison camps, and reactions and impressions of the War from the home front. The collection, comprised of over , pages, focuses on the War as it was fought from to and represents both Northern and Southern perspectives. It also contains important contextual documents leading up to War and after its conclusion. George H. A digitized collection of documents relating to U.
President George H. Part of Archives Unbound. HistoryMakers This link opens in a new window. The nation's largest collection of oral history interviews of African American leaders, with over 3, interviews. Interviews are split into short clips for ease of viewing and searching. This growing collection of journals provides additional resources for the study of literary movements, texts, and authors. Given that everything in life has a purpose, Aristotle asks in his Nicomachean Ethics what is the purpose of humankind?
His answer is to seek happiness. This is the sole self- sufficient good. But how do we achieve happiness? Basically, by being virtuous. If this sounds unconvincing to some, he develops his argument by making a distinction between intellectual and moral virtue. The former is equivalent to what we would call wisdom or intelligence and is mainly acquired by teaching and instruction, whereas moral virtue is concerned with our conduct towards other people and is mainly acquired by practice.
When Aristotle says virtue is necessary for happiness, he is including both kinds. If persons lack virtue, they are not functioning as they should, not fulfilling their purposes efficiently and therefore it is impossible for them to achieve happiness. Of the two types of virtue Aristotle distinguishes in the Ethics, it is moral virtue in which he is most interested and he goes on to examine it in some detail.
In trying to capture what is essential to it, he developed the idea that the virtuous action is generally a middle course between two extremes. For example, the virtue of generosity is a mean between meanness and prodigality. But here again there is a translation problem. Eudaimonia, the Greek word we translate as happiness, does not just mean a feeling of personal pleasure as Aristotle himself points out ,2 it means living the good life.
Similarly neither can one day, or a brief space of time, make a man blessed or happy.
His answer is theoria, or in English, contemplation or the pursuit of intellectual understanding. It is also interesting to note the link between these two Greek thinkers and certain Eastern mystics and others who see meditation as our highest and most noble activity. He was however not as suspicious of democracy as Plato and favoured a form of government he called polity where the state is ruled by the best and wisest who are in a sense representative of all the people. Like Plato, Aristotle believes the state should have complete control of education and use it to prepare the desired type of citizens needed by the state.
Also like Plato, he was really only interested in the education of the free Greek citizen—workers and slaves only needed basic training for their future jobs.
He has the most to say about moral education and, as we have noted, held that moral virtue was mainly acquired by practice. If children are accustomed to the right moral habits from an early age, doing the right thing will become second nature to them.
This has become a very influential model for moral education ever since. Then he goes on to raise an objection to what he has just said. He says that if we become moral by doing moral acts, does this not imply we are already moral, for how otherwise could we do moral acts in the first place? It involves once again making an important distinction, this time between acts in accordance with morality and moral acts proper.
The actual behaviour may be exactly the same e. For an act to be fully moral Aristotle says three conditions are necessary: 1 we must act with knowledge 2 we must deliberately choose the act for its own sake and 3 the act must spring from a fixed disposition of character. Acts in accordance with morality, on the other hand, may be performed just out of habit, through fear of punishment, to gain approval and so forth. So Aristotle has resolved his own problem: it is quite possible to perform acts that correspond to morality before we are fully moral. Modern psychologists such as Piaget and Kohlberg have demonstrated empirically what Aristotle is saying here.
What about the rest of the curriculum apart from moral education? Here Aristotle does not have much to say explicitly but he would have had a graduated programme in some ways similar to Plato. From 7 to puberty and then on to 21 is the period of public state- controlled education. The basic subjects would be gymnastics, reading, drawing and music. Of these, Aristotle wrote in most detail on the educational value of music. This last stage is the period of liberal education, called liberal for two reasons.
It is this final period that interested Aristotle the most and the one that he saw as being worthwhile in itself or of intrinsic value. Aristotle was particularly derogatory about using education for any extrinsic or instrumental purposes and it is here that some of his aristocratic prejudices come out most clearly.
Vocational education was fit only for the lower classes, for the Greek citizen it was the idea of education as making you a fuller and more cultured person that counted. Overall many of the key themes emphasized by Aristotle remain with us in education to the present day, including his empiricist model of how we learn, the stress on early habit training in moral education followed by acquisition of a principled morality, the idea that happiness, virtue and contemplation are all interrelated and are key educational goals, and finally the ideal of liberal education with its stress on the intrinsic values of learning.
Thomson, London: Penguin Books, , rev. Tredennick, Book X, p. The Ethics of Aristotle, trans. Thomson, London: Penguin Books, , revised by H. The Politics of Aristotle, trans. Howie, G. Lord, C. Verbeke, G. Rorty, A. Jesus taught as he lived.
He lived in unconventional ways. His method and his message were the warp and woof of an unconventional mission—to challenge people to think in new ways. We know very little about his early years, but mainstream scholars think that Jesus learned to read and write in a local synagogue, with the Torah as his text. Jesus and his family travel with others from Nazareth to the yearly celebration of Passover in Jerusalem. Mary and Joseph return to Jerusalem, frantically searching for him. Your father and I have been very worried, and we have been searching for you! His mother kept thinking about all that had happened.
Jesus became wise, and he grew strong. God was pleased with him and so were the people. This, in itself, would have attracted attention within a highly structured and class-conscious society. His message of hope for a new day of mercy and justice attracted the poor and marginalized. Perhaps more influential than even these words was that Jesus treated everyone he encountered as having worth. His actions were congruent with his words. For instance, he took time to teach illiterate peasants, spent time with people who were despised tax collectors , touched those considered unclean lepers , and invited children to come and sit with him after his disciples tried to chase them away.
Jesus repeatedly told his followers that they should look for truth and salvation—the Kingdom of God—within themselves. In the early years of the Christian Church, the defenders of the faith, or apologists, attempted to present Jesus as the Divine Teacher with his authority from God. He taught his followers that the divine could live in them.
The presence of divinity in the teacher engenders the powers of interpretation, understanding, communication and instruction that guide the students in the quest for the divine. Through a process of maturing, the students eventually become assimilated into the divine and attain divine status themselves. Later in the early Church, this developmental process of maturation in the faith became the catechetical process, a learning process which usually took three years of training and apprenticeship in the Christian life.
However, Jesus was very reluctant to make divinity claims for himself. His relationship with his followers was that of master teacher to pupils. In Roman society there were two classes of teachers. One was a tutor hired by wealthy families to teach knowledge and moral character to the children in the household. The other role was that of master teacher who taught a group of students in the sciences and philosophy. A second-century Christian theologian, Clement, saw Jesus in both of these roles. First, Jesus tutored his disciples and other followers about the Kingdom of God and a new way of living in love.
In fact, the wisdom woven through his conversations with people and his many parables confounded the educated leaders of that day. They wondered how an itinerant preacher who came from a simple peasant family and a town like Nazareth could speak with such charisma and authority? How could a man who ignored strict Jewish laws—like healing on the Sabbath and eating with publicans— captivate hundreds and thousands of Jewish people from all walks of life?
For this I was born, and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Marcus Borg, a Jesus scholar, talks about Jesus having alternative wisdom in contrast to conventional wisdom. Parables were good stories that invited people to consider a new way of thinking. In the Gospels, Jesus tells his disciples why he speaks in parables. Jesus found that those who were uneducated and oppressed were likely to understand the meaning of his parables since they were ready to consider a new way of life.
Jesus lived what he taught. He embodied a challenge to the conventions of his day. Much of biblical scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century centred on study of the historical Jesus.
Poor and often illiterate peasants were taught processes for studying the Bible that gave them insights into their plights and incentives to take action for the common good in their barrios. Housing and health care for the poor and working classes have been two major thrusts for these groups.
It starts with the Bible as primarily a story. Stanley Hauerwas sees an ethical dimension in the biblical narrative which shows us how to live as people of God in the world. Borg, M. Crossan, J. Ehrman, B. Johnson, L. Powell, M. Neusner, J. There are you our joy. Our rest is our peace…. A body by its weight tends to move to its proper place.
Once they are in their ordered position, they are at rest. My weight is my love. His mother Monica was a Christian; his father Patricius was a pagan, who received baptism on his death-bed. The writings he left were destined to be read in a world very different from his own. He was subjected to the disheartening procedures of education in those days: learning by rote, a concentration upon single words to the neglect of the whole, artificial composition, and instruction in Greek that nauseated him—he never read Greek copiously and with ease.
The whole process was well seasoned with corporal punishment. He writes in the first book of the Confessions about the pains and terror and boredom of his school-days, and yet the education he received at great cost to his parents made him a member of a caste that might find acceptance anywhere in the Roman world. Augustine began to teach, first in Thagaste and then in Carthage. He formed a stable liaison with a woman of a lower social class than himself, and a son was born to them. His education had been literary, but he encountered a philosophical writing by Cicero now surviving only in fragments —the Hortensius, which placed the highest happiness in the quest for Wisdom, and he was much moved by it.
But a reading of the Bible disappointed him, and he entered a subordinate rank among the Manichees—a dualistic religion which made the Good principle be good indeed, but not omnipotent. His faithful companion was taken from him—she was an impediment to his advancement.
His taking the final step in is told in the eighth book of the Confessions written thirteen years after the event. His baptism took place at Milan. Within three years, his mother and his son were both dead, and Augustine returned to Africa and was ordained a priest. In , he was made a bishop by force—such was a custom in those days—and bore for the rest of his life the burden of administration which this entailed. His voluminous writings include commentaries on Scripture, devotional works, philosophical treatises against scepticism and on the freedom of the will, educational works, the Confessions themselves, and writings against theological opponents.
The first, and obviously, of these was against the Manichees. Then, in the closing years of his life, he composed The City of God, directed at the paganism of an Empire now in dissolution. In the centuries that followed his death, when the Western Empire ended and the darkness came down, two things of Christian inheritance would have been found, along with fragments of pagan learning and literature, in the libraries of monasteries: one was the Latin Bible of St Jerome, and the other was writings by his contemporary, St Augustine.
Whatever one thinks of his influence, it is there and it is undeniable. The text of Augustine I put at the start of this essay was written by him in the setting of a meditation on the desire we have for God that runs through all our imaginings and wanderings.
He made us for himself, and our hearts will know no rest until they rest in him Confessions I. He contrasts in the first book of the Confessions his experiences at school learning Greek with his acquisition of Latin, his native language. The punishments administered at school soured the language for him, and even the stories told by Homer were repellent, and had as it were gall sprinkled over them. Even at school, the poetry of Virgil moved his heart, and he wept over the death of Dido I.
Later, the first step towards what was eventually his conversion came when amid a largely literary education , he read the philosophical work by Cicero about the quest for wisdom. It altered my prayers, Lord, towards yourself. And the famous scene at Milan where he finally turns to God—even when we make allowance for the distance in time between the event and the narrative—is portrayed by Augustine as a change of heart, a relief from anxiety VIII.
The work De catechizandis rudibus shows the same preoccupations, but now in the practical setting of giving religious instruction. Deogratias the catechist who had written for encouragement and advice must not be despondent: it may well be that the pupils thought better of his discourse than he did. Any teacher at times will be painfully aware of the gap between what he has in mind and what he manages to express.
He must strive to be cheerful—God loves a cheerful giver—and to let joy be felt in what he says II. Difficulties may arise on the part of the pupil or of the teacher. If so, we must not forget that the teaching itself can sometimes purify the intentions of the one who receives it. Or the pupil may be already educated in other matters, and is probably familiar with passages from Scripture.
Once more, we must go out to his condition. We should not talk as if he knew nothing, but rather speak as if we were reminding him of what he already knew. His difficulties and objections should not be peremptorily set aside, but discussed in a modest conversation modesta collatione. As for those pupils who have been trained in language and rhetoric Augustine is thinking of people with his own educational background , they must be instructed in humility—not to be deterred by literary imperfections in the Scriptures, or by solecisms in what is said by ministers. They must be taught to see that what matters is the content of what is said.
They need a change of priorities as we saw Augustine put it in the Confessions : to prefer discourses that are true and friends that are wise IX. Or the difficulties may lie in the teacher himself. What he possesses inwardly has to be spelt out in detail that he finds tedious: he may be disheartened by what seems inertness in the pupil; his own private worries may impede his efficiency or—and this has a modern enough ring—he may be engaged in some fascinating work of his own, and have to leave it in order to teach X.
Augustine does not claim to offer quick remedies for these difficulties. We need the charity of Christ towards our pupils, who himself used the analogy of the hen gathering the chickens under her XI. We need in a sense to learn with our pupils when we teach—the old things can then become new to us XI.
Inertness should encourage us to get the pupil to express his feelings without fear; above all, we need patience XI. Perhaps a change in posture will help—why not let him sit instead of stand? As for our own preferred work, we should try to plan our work and our priorities, accepting with good grace the disturbance of our plan XIV. In both the Confessions and the De catechizandis rudibus, Augustine writes of the methods of teaching he prefers. He is making a general philosophical point, although the route he takes to making it may perplex us. Words are signs of objects, and invite us to look; but we have to perform the looking for ourselves.
Without the looking, the sign will not help Augustine gives an example of an enigmatic word in the Book of Daniel. To attain intellectual knowledge, we need an interior light, and for this the teacher is but the outward occasion. The pupil is taught by the things themselves, as God reveals them inwardly to him. Fifty major thinkers on education 30 Rather, the pupil must be aroused to use upon what is being said to him the powers that he has within. The three concluding books are in the form of a meditation in passages in the Book of Genesis.
I cite the Confessions by book, chapter and paragraph number. It is a warmhearted and eminently practical work, giving a good idea of how Augustine himself taught. I cite this by chapter and paragraph number. A good proportion has been translated in a variety of dates and settings into English. Details of titles and translations are to be found in the five Chronological Tables in the indispensable biography, Brown Paragraph numbers, which run continuously through the chapters, can usefully complement any reference. To the three works mentioned in note 1, I add first the translation of the Confessions I have used: Chadwick, H, Augustine: Confessions, with introduction and notes, Oxford: Oxford University Press, It is very long—most translations of it are also abridgments.
Saint Augustine — 31 Further reading Brown, P. Burnyeat, M. Harrison, S. Marrou, H. He who never fares to that [latter] world, but allows the limitations of life in this lower world of sense to settle upon him, is still a brute beast, an excommunicate from that which constitutes us men…. As the rind is to the fruit;…as darkness in relation to light; as infernal to supernal; so is this World of Sense in relation to the World of the Realm Celestial.
The rich contributions which Islam has made in the various branches of science served as the bases for the development of modern science. Although many earlier Western writers tended to ignore this fact, recent investigators have stressed and recognized the importance of the Muslim contributions in all areas of human endeavour, especially in developing areas of scientific outlook. He was a major jurist, heresiographer and debater expert in the principles of doctrine and those of jurisprudence.
Al-Ghazzali was an outstanding theologian, jurist, original thinker, mystic and religious reformer. His father died while he was still very young, and he and his brother Ahmed were left orphans at an early age. The members of his family were prominent in the study of Qanon Law. When Al-Ghazzali abandoned his teaching position at the Nizamyah school in Baghdad, he deputized his brother Ahmed, who was famous for his preaching, to replace him.
He studied theology, philosophy, logic and natural sciences. Al-Ghazzali was appointed a professor there for four years, teaching theology and philosophy. Many scholars came to him for learning and consultation. Al-Ghazzali abandoned his post to become a wandering mystic. He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and then went to Damascus, where he lived in the mosque as was the custom of travellers at that time.
Al-Ghazzali wrote many deeply original religious books that synthesized the mystical and orthodox points of view. Al-Ghazzali studied Christianity. He was especially familiar with the doctrines and faith of the Christian Greeks, and these had a fundamental impact upon his religious teaching. He also read the Greek philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and others. His several books were upon many different subjects.
These books were closely related to the progress of his own spiritual and intellectual growth. He was interested in reaching everybody and to spread his ideas among all. Al-Ghazzali wrote at different levels for different audiences. At the higher levels he philosophized in a sophisticated way and enriched what he maintained at the lower levels. It is fair to say that Al-Ghazzali was, and still is, considered as one of the greatest writers and thinkers of Islam. He made major contributions in religion, philosophy and sufism.
As far as philosophy is concerned, to which he had been introduced by Al-Juwayni, he first wrote Makasid Al- Falasifa Objectives of the Philosophers which was greatly admired in the West, especially in the twelve and thirteenth centuries.
This book is a presentation of the theories and thoughts of philosophers, as he understood them from original translation, and from studies of Al-Farabi d. This he followed by a criticism of the doctrines of such philosophers, entitled Tahafut Al-Falasifa The Inconsistency or Incoherence of the Philosophers. This was finished at the beginning of In this book, he concentrated on demonstrating the inconsistencies of other philosophers, especially those most influenced by the Greeks, and does not argue for any positive views of his own. What impressed Al-Ghazzali most in philosophy was logic, and in particular the Aristotelian syllogism.
However, in philosophy, Al-Ghazzali emphasized the inability of reason to comprehend the absolute and the infinite. He argued that religion and reason had, as their respective spheres, the infinite and the finite, respectively. In religion, particularly religious mysticism, Al-Ghazzali cleansed the approach of sufism of its excesses and re-established the authority of the Orthodox religion.
Yet, he stressed the importance of genuine sufism which, he maintained, was the path to the attainment of absolute truth. Al-Ghazzali wrote, before his death, Al-Munqith min Al-dalal The Rescuer from Loss , an account of the development of his religious opinions. Although many consider this book as an autobiographical sketch, it is not exactly an autobiography since it is arranged schematically not chronologically.
In this book, he was much concerned with defending himself against the accusations and criticism that had been brought against his conduct and the views that he had expressed. This book provides a complete guide to a pious life, and is one of the very greatest works of religion written by a Moslem.
The book is composed of four volumes. Each volume has ten books. The Ihya is thus a complete guide for the devout Muslim to every aspect of the religious life—worship and devotional practices, conduct in daily life, the purification of the heart, and advance along the Mystic way. In this way, he helped to develop the concept of self-control by both teachers and students in their pursuit of any educational activity. Rather, he could participate in developing and enriching the realm of knowledge, and the more sincere he was in his scholarly endeavours, the more opportunities he would have to add to authentic knowledge.
This conclusion is not really valid, since Al-Ghazzali forcefully argued that religion is the basis of rationality. Any form of rationality must, therefore, be delineated within the sphere of religion. To begin with, he emphasized the importance of raising a generation of faithful people who would be close to God and free from conflict among one another.
Education should be in the service of society and bring up people with high moral standards. He also emphasized that education is a virtue, and that it should be congruent with the verses of the Holy Koran and the sayings of Mohammed, peace be upon him. If learners are to "develop a democracy," some scholars have argued, they must be provided the tools for transforming the non-democratic aspects of a society.
Democracy in this sense involves not just "participation in decision making," a vision ascribed especially to Dewey, but the ability to confront power with solidarity. Core features of democratic education align with the emerging consensus on 21st century business and management priorities. Such features include increased collaboration, decentralized organization, and radical creativity. While democratic schools don't have an official curriculum, what each student actually does might be considered their own curriculum.
Although there was a resurgence of inquiry education in the s and s  the standards movement of the 21st century and the attendant school reform movement have squashed most attempts at authentic inquiry-oriented democratic education practices. The standards movement has reified standardized tests in literacy and writing, neglecting science inquiry, the arts, and critical literacy.
Democratic schools may not consider only reading, writing and arithmetic to be the real basics for being a successful adult. Neill said "To hell with arithmetic. This is easier to accomplish in elementary school settings than in secondary school settings, as elementary teachers typically teach all subjects and have large blocks of time that allow for in-depth projects that integrate curriculum from different knowledge domains.
Allen Koshewa  conducted research that highlighted the tensions between democratic education and the role of teacher control, showing that children in a fifth grade classroom tried to usurp democratic practices by using undue influence to sway others, much as representative democracies often fail to focus on the common good or protect minority interests. He found that class meetings, service education, saturation in the arts, and an emphasis on interpersonal caring helped overcome some of these challenges. Despite the challenges of inquiry education, classrooms that allow students to make choices about curriculum propel students to not only learn about democracy but also to experience it.
A striking feature of democratic schools is the ubiquity of play. Students of all ages—but especially the younger ones—often spend most of their time either in free play, or playing games electronic or otherwise. All attempts to limit, control or direct play must be democratically approved before being implemented.
Play is considered essential for learning, particularly in fostering creativity. It was Invented by Liam Doherty. Interest in learning to read happens at a wide variety of ages.
In addition, Stephen Krashen  and other proponents of democratic education emphasise the role of libraries in promoting democratic education. Others, such as children's author Judy Blume, have spoken out against censorship as antagonistic to democratic education,  while the school reform movement, which gained traction under the federal initiative 'No Child Left Behind' and later under 'Race to the Top' and the Common Core Standards movement, emphasise strict control over curriculum.
As English aristocracy was giving way to democracy, Matthew Arnold investigated popular education in France and other countries to determine what form of education suited a democratic age. During the industrial age, John Dewey argued that children should not all be given the same pre-determined curriculum. In Democracy and Education he develops a philosophy of education based on democracy. He argues that while children should be active participants in the creation of their education, and while children must experience democracy to learn democracy, they need adult guidance to develop into responsible adults.
Amy Gutmann argues in Democratic Education that in a democratic society, there is a role for everyone in the education of children. These roles are best agreed upon through deliberative democracy. Yaacov Hecht claims that the Democratic Education, being an education that prepares for life in a democratic culture, it is the missing piece in the intricate puzzle which is the democratic state. Student teaching placements are in both regular schools and democratic schools. United Nations agreements both support and place restrictions on education options, including democratic education:.
Article 26 3 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Furthermore, while Article 12 1 of the Convention mandates that children be able to have input on all matters that affect them, their input will have limited weight, "due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
In , Summerhill received a 'notice of complaint' over its policy of non-compulsory lessons, a procedure which would usually have led to closure; Summerhill contested the notice  and went before a special educational tribunal. Summerhill was represented by a noted human rights lawyer, Geoffrey Robertson QC. The government's case soon collapsed, and a settlement was offered. This offer was discussed and agreed at a formal school meeting which had been hastily convened in the courtroom from a quorum of pupils and teachers who were present in court.
The settlement guaranteed that future inspections of Summerhill would be consistent with Summerhill's educational philosophy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of the Politics series on Students' rights History. Authentic assessment Anarchistic free school Democratic education Freedom of speech Democratic schools Hidden curriculum Minimally invasive education Scholarism Sudbury school The Student Student activism Student-centred learning Student protest Student riot Students' union Student voice Unschooling.
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